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“The smallest of the URF’s (URFA6L), a 207-nucleotide (nt) reading frame overlapping out of phase the NH2-terminal portion of the adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit 6 gene has been identified as the animal equivalent of the recently discovered yeast H+-ATPase subunit 8 gene. The functional significance of the other URF’s has been, on the contrary, elusive. Recently, however, immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies to purified, rotenone-sensitive NADH-ubiquinone oxido-reductase (hereafter referred to as respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase or complex I) from bovine heart, as well as enzyme fractionation studies, have indicated that six human URF’s (that is, URF1, URF2, URF3, URF4, URF4L, and URF5, hereafter referred to as ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, and ND5) encode subunits of complex I. This is a large complex that also contains many subunits synthesized in the cytoplasm.”
“VEGF is the most potent and direct factor in the induction of angiogenesis and collateral formation. In the present study, VEGF mRNA expression was highest in the 40 HZ group and also significantly increased in the 10 Hz group compared with the control group. The most potent stimuli that initiate capillary angiogenesis are ischemia and hypoxia demonstrated that hypoxia is a potential cause for the increases in VEGF that occur with chronic motor nerve stimulation of skeletal muscle. The level of VEGF mRNA was highest in the 40 Hz group. The main mechanism for this upregulation is most likely related to the hypoxic–ischemic state. When blood flow to the muscles is reduced during static contraction, an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand is created. This elicits the production of ischemic metabolites, including VEGF.”
“Studies on the disposition of labetalol stereoisomers in humans after oral administration of the racemic labetalol mixture have shown predominance of the (S,S)-stereoisomer in plasma and urine and small concentrations of the (R,R) and (S,R) stereoisomers in plasma. The proportion of the (R,S) and (R,R) stereoisomers is respectively 22 and 9% in plasma and 4 and 24% in urine, respectively, suggesting streoselective renal clearance. Previous experiements observed that the concentrations in plasma of (R,R)-labetalol was approximately 40% lower than those of the other stereoisomers, confirming the fact that the kinetic disposition of labetalol is stereoselective. Concentrations of three of the four stereoisomers of labetalol are higher in women than men. Concentrations are similar between genders, however, for the b-blocking stereoisomer (R,R-labetalol), possible explaining the similarity in antihypertensive response to the drug.”
“The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of controlled retrieval processes in the development of children’s memory for context information. Tables 2 and 3 provide, respectively, the mean probability of providing a “yes” response on low and high specificity test-lists according to age group, test question, and encoding condition. Memory for encoding context was subsequently tested with a series of brief recognition tests in which test items were presented as single words. The design of this study was based on a recent investigation of the effects of retrieval specificity on adult age differences in recollection. Process dissociation assumes that recollection and familiarity exist independently and that estimates of each process may be derived mathematically. Supplementary analyses were performed to further illuminate the age differences that were observed in the recollection scores on tests with High levels of Test Specificity.”